Differential Migration Research
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In many species of birds the males and females migrate different distances from the breeding range, and thus end up partially segregated on the winter range. winter segregation also occurs among younger and older birds. Unraveling the potential mechanisms behind differential migration - social dominance, body size or selection for early arrival in breeding males - has been a source of fascination for ornithologists since the 1970's (with very little to show for our efforts!). I continue to think about this interesting ecological and evolutionary biology problem, if nothing else as an example of how knowledge is created by science.
- Keiser, J.T., Ziegenfus, C. W. S. & Cristol, D.A. 2005. Homing success of migrant and non-migrant birds. Auk 122:608-617. (pdf)
- Cristol, D. A., Reynolds, E. B., LeClerc, J. E., Donner, A. H., Farabaugh, C.F. & Ziegenfus, C.W. S. 2003. Migratory dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) have better spatial memory and denser hippocampal neurons than non-migratory conspecifics. Animal Behaviour 66:317-328. (pdf)
- Jenkins, K.D. & Cristol, D.A. 2002. Evidence of differential migration by sex in White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichea albicollis). Auk 119:539-543. (pdf)
- Nolan, V., Ketterson, E.D., Cristol, D.A., Rogers, C.M., Clotfelter, E.D. Titus, R.C., Schoech & Snajdr, E. 2002. Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). In The Birds of North America, No. 716 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc. Philadelphia, PA.66:317-328.
- Cristol, D.A., Baker, M.B. & Carbone, C. 1999. Differential migration revisited: latitudinal segregation by age and sex classes. Current Ornithology 15:33-88.
- Cristol, D.A. 1995. Early arrival, initiation of nesting, and social status: An experimental study of breeding female red-winged blackbirds. Behavioral Ecology 6:87-93. (pdf)
- Cristol, D.A. & Johnsen, T.S. 1994. Spring arrival, aggression and testosterone in female Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). Auk 111:210-214. (pdf)
- Cristol, D.A. & Evers, D.C. 1992. Dominance status and latitude are unrelated in wintering Dark-eyed Juncos, Junco hyemalis. Condor 94:539-542. (pdf)