Research Tools

**Reliability and Validity
of the OCB Scale**

The **OCB Scale **is
a 12-item Likert-type scale that measures the degree to which the teaching
faculty of a school engages in organizational citizenship behavior; the higher
the score, the greater the extent of organizational citizenship of the school..
The OCB is a refinement of the earlier OCBS.

The reliability of the scale is consistently high - range = .86 to .93 (DiPaola, Tarter, & Hoy, 2005). The construct validity has also been supported in three separate factor analyses (DiPaola, Tarter, & Hoy, 2005)

DiPaola, M., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001).
Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school
climate. *Journal of School Leadership*, 11 (5), pp. 424-47. This article
describes the early version of the scale, the OCBS Scale.

DiPaola, M, Tarter, C., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Measuring organizational citizenship in schools: The OCB Scale. In Wayne K. Hoy & Cecil Miskel (Eds.) Leadership and Reform in American Public Schools. Greenwich, CT: Information Age. This chapter describes the refined OCB Scale.

**SCORING KEY**

1. Score items 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 as:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

2. Reverse score items 2 and 10 as:

1=6, 2=5, 3=4, 4=3, 5=2, and 6=1

3. Compute an **average school item score (ASIS)** for each item:

For each item, add scores for all individuals on the item and devide by number of individuals.

4. Compute the **school score**:

Add all the average school item scores (**ASIS**) and devide by 12 (number of items).

FOR HIGH SCHOOLS:

Computing a Standardized Score using the OCD Scale for purposes of comparison:

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior is

[100*(OCB-3.69)/.19]+500.

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the normative sample (OCB-3.69). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*(OCB-3.69)]. Next devide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.19). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school score against the normative data provided in an Ohio sample of high schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it's two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the school in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLS:

Computing a Standardized Score using the OCD Scale for purposes of comparison:

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior is

[100*(OCB-3.74)/.24]+500.

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the normative sample (OCB-3.74). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*(OCB-3.74)]. Next devide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.24). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school score against the normative data provided in an Ohaio sample of high schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it's two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the school in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS:

Computing a Standardized Score using the OCD Scale for purposes of comparison:

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior is

[100*(OCB-3.86)/.27]+500.

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the normative sample (OCB-3.86). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*(OCB-3.86)]. Next devide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.27). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school score against the normative data provided in an Ohaio sample of high schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it's two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the school in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

**OCB Scale**

- Teachers help students on their own time.
- Teachers waste a lot of class time.
- Teachers voluntarily help new teachers.
- Teachers volunteer to serve on new committees.
- Teachers volunteer to sponsor extra curricular activities.
- Teacher arrive to work and meetings on time.
- Teachers take the initiative to introduce themselves to substitutes and assist them.
- Teachers begin class promptly and use class time effectively.
- Teachers give colleagues advanced notice of changes in schedule or routine.
- Teacher give an excessive amount of busy work.
- Teacher committees in this school work productively.
- Teachers make innovative suggestions to improve the overall quality of our school.

DiPaola, M.F., Tarter, C.J., & Hoy, W.K. (2005). Measuring organizational citizenship of schools: The OCB scale, in W. Hoy & C. Miskel (Eds.), *Educational Leadership and Reform, 4, 319-341*. Greenwich, CN: Information Age Publishing.

**School Climate Index**

**Collegial Leadership**

Collegial leadership is characterized by behavior of the principal that is supportive and egalitarian. The prinsipal is considerate, helpful, and genuinely concerned about the welfare of teachers. At the same time, the principal lets faculty know what is expected of them and maitains definite standards of perfomance. The principal is open to exploring all sides of topics and willing to make changes. He or she accepts questions without appearing to snub teachers, and admits that divergent opinions exist. The principal takes an interest in classroom issues that are important teachers.

**Teacher Professionalism**

Teacher professionalism describes teacher behavior characterized by commitment to students and engagement in the teaching task. Teachers respect the professional expertise of colleagues. Professional interactions among techers are open and cooperative. Teacher are supportive of one another and help one another. Teachers display warmth and friendliness.

**Academic Press**

Academic press is the extent to which the school is driven by a quest for excellence. Teachers and administrators set a tone that is serious, orderly, and focused on academics. High but achievable goals are set for students, and students respond positively to the challenge of these goals. They work hard and respect the academic accomlishments of their peers.

**Community Engagement**

Community engagement is the extent to which the school has fostered a constructive relationship with its community. This measure describes the degree to which the school can count on involment and support from parents and community members, and the extent to which the school provides the community with information about its accomplishments. For a copy of the School Climate Index, click here.

**Scoring the School Climate Index**

Scoring directions are for the School Climate Index are described below. In addition, directions for calculating a standartized score are included so that schools can compare their results with other schools. The standardized score is presented on a scale with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100, mich like an SAT or GRE score. For example, a school with a score of 600 on teacher professionalism is one standard deviation above the average score on teacher professionalism of all schools in the sample. That means that the school has higher faculty trust in colleagues than 84% of the school in the sample.

The range of the standartized scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

It is criticized that ethical standards are adhered to in admistering the surveys. The surveys (other than the principal survey) must be administered anonymously so that there is no way for the results to be traced to the individual whocompleted the survey. Participants should be told that their participation is voluntary and that they may skip any items they are uncomfortable aswering. Faculty, parent, and student survey should be returned to someone other than the principal. Student surveys should be administered outside of class because they may perceive their completion of the survey to be compulsory, even if they are told their participation is voluntary.

Ready-to-print versions of the SCI are available here for principals, other practitioners, and scholars interested in studying school climate.

**Scoring Directions for the Faculty SCI Survey**

There are four sub scales to the School Climate Index: Collegial Leadership, Teacher Professionalism, Academic Press, and Community Engagement. The SCI can be used at the elementary, middle or high school* levels.

*Note: The norms at the high school level are still under development and should be taken with a grain of salt.

**Step 1: **Calculate the average score for each item an the survey.

You will need to calculate the average of all the responses to the survey for each item on the questionnaire. Assign 2 pts for every Rarely response, 3 pts for every Sometimes response, 4 pts for every Often response, and 5 pts for every Very Frequently response. You can use a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel or calculate the means by hand.

If you are using a statistical package such as SPSS, you can skip this step and go directly to Step 2 because the package will calculate the mean of the means

** Step 2**: Calculate the mean score for your school on each of the four subscales. Use your spreadsheet or statistical package to calculate the school means on each of the subscales.

Collegial Leadership: (7+8+16+17+23+24+25)/7

Teacher Professionalism: (3+4+11+12+13+18+19+20)/8

Community Engagement: (1+2+9+10+26+27+28)/7

Academic Press: (5+6+14+15+21+22)/6

**Step 3:** Computing the standardized Scores for the School Climate Index for purpose of comparison.

You can convert your school score on each of the subscales to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100 to make comparison with other schools possible. First, compute the difference between your school score on Collegial Leadership (CL) and the mean for the normative sample. For a high school, this would mean (CL - 3.946). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100(CL - 3.946)]. Next devide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.4127). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed a standardized score Standard Score for Collegial Leadership. Repeat the process for each subscale as follows, depending on the level of your school.

For Elementary Schools, calculate standardized trust scores using the following formulas:

Standard Score for Collegial Leadership (CL)

100(CL - 3.847)/.4946 + 500

Standard Score for Teacher Professionalism (TP)

100(TP - 4.072)/.280 + 500

Standard Score for Academic Press (AP)

100(AP - 3.656)/.286 + 500

Standard Score for Community Engagement (CE)

100(CE - 3.597)/.431 + 500

For Middle Schools, calculate standardized trust scores using the following formulas:

Standard Score for Collegial Leadership (CL)

100(CL - 3.886)/.380 + 500

Standard Score for Teacher Professionalism (TP)

100(TP - 3.932)/.265 + 500

Standard Score for Academic Press (AP)

100(AP - 3.574)/.318 + 500

Standard Score for Community Engagement (CE)

100(CE - 3.60)/.418 + 500

For High Schools, calculate standardized trust scores using the following formulas:

Standard Score for Collegial Leadership (CL)

100(CL - 3.946)/.4127 + 500

Standard Score for Teacher Professionalism (TP)

100(TP - 4.089)/.218 + 500

Standard Score for Academic Press (AP)

100(AP - 3.631)/.276 + 500

Standard Score for Community Engagement (CE)

100(CE - 3.48)/.343 + 500

**Validity and Reliability for the SCI**

Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was strong for the SCI at 0.96. Each subscale also demonstrated strong reliability: collegial leadership (0.93), teacher professionalism (0.94), academic press (0.92), and community engagement (0.93). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis with items loading from .56 to .91 for collegial leadership, .66 to .83 for teacher professionalism, and .53 to .83 for academic press and community engagement.

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**Abstract**

The school principal has been long recognized as a critical element of an effective school. Consequently, researchers have attempted to identify specific characteristics of effective school principals for decades. One aspect of principal behavior that has been neglected by researchers is the level of principal support of teachers. Yet, teachers consistently report that the level of support principals provide has a significant impact on their effectiveness and job satisfaction. This study tested an existing measure of principal support based on House’s (1981) theory of social support. It produced a 16-item valid and reliable operational measure of principal support, the Principal Support Scale (PSS). The study also generated and refined the concept of principal support with two related dimensions—expressive and instrumental.

Expressive support is the degree of emotional and professional support teachers perceive, while instrumental support is the extent to which teachers perceive their principal as providing support in terms of time, resources, and constructive feedback

**PDF links:**

Conceptualizing and Validating a Measure of Principal Support