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Directions for Administering Trust Surveys
It is critical that ethical standards are adhered to in administering the surveys. The surveys (other than the principal survey) must be administered anonymously so that there is no way for the results to be traced to the individual who completed the survey. Participants should be told the purposes of the research, that their participation is voluntary, and that they may skip any items they are uncomfortable answering. Faculty, parent, and student surveys should be returned to someone other than the principal. Student surveys should be administered outside of class because they may perceive their completion of the survey to be compulsory, even if they are told their participation is voluntary.
Sample Script for Administering Survey
Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study. This survey is part of research on teacher perceptions and beliefs that is being conducted by ____________________________.
Your participation is voluntary. You may decline to complete the survey or you may skip any item that you feel uncomfortable answering. The surveys should take about ten minutes to complete.
All responses are anonymous. There are no correct or incorrect answers. The researchers are interested only in your frank opinion in order to determine the statistical relationships between the variables.
Please do not complete the survey if you are not a teacher.
Please return the completed survey to the person who gave it to you. If you have any questions, please feel free to call _______________________.
Your time, insights, and perceptions are valuable resources. Thank you for sharing them!
Scoring Directions for Principal Survey
Scoring directions are provided for each of these surveys, as well as evidence on the reliability and validity of the scales. Directions for calculating a standardized score are included so that schools can compare their results with other schools. The standardized score is presented on a scale with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100, much like an SAT or GRE score. For example, a school with a score of 600 on faculty trust in colleagues is two standard deviations above the average score on faculty trust in colleagues of all schools in the sample. That means that the school has higher faculty trust in colleagues than 84% of the schools in the sample.
The range of the standardized scores is presented below:
If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.
If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.
If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.
If the score is 500, it is average.
If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.
If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.
If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.
The Principal Trust Scale measures the level of principal trust in three constituencies: Principal Trust in the Faculty, Principal Trust of Students, and Principal Trust in Parents.
Step 1: Reverse the response code the items that are negatively worded.
Because some items are written as negative rather than positive statements, the response code needs to be reverse, that is, [1=6, 2=5, 3=4, 4=3, 5=2, 6=1]. Items to be reversecoded are identified by an asterisk. For the Principal Survey, these are items 8 and 9. Because there are six response categories, an easy way to reverse the coding using your statistical package is to program it to rescore each of the selected items by calculating the difference from 7. For example, a score of 5 would be converted to 2 because 7 5 = 2, and a score of 3 would be converted to 4 because 7 3 = 4.
Step 2: Calculate the average score for each item on the survey.
You will need to calculate the average of all the responses to the survey for each item on the questionnaire. You can use a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel or calculate the means by hand. If you are using a statistical package such as SPSS, you can skip this step and go directly to Step 3 because the package will calculate the mean of the means.
Step 3: Calculate the mean score for your school on each of the three subscales:
Use your spreadsheet or statistical package to calculate the school means on each of the subscales.
Principal Trust in Teachers
(1 + 4 + 6 + 8* + 9* + 12 + 13 + 17 + 18) / 9
Principal Trust in Students Clients (students and parents)
(3 + 5 + 7 + 10 + 11 + 19) / 6
Principal Trust in Parents
(2 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 20) / 5
Step 4: Computing the Standardized Scores for the Principal Trust Scale for purposes of comparison.
You can convert your school score on each of the subscales to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100 to make comparison with other schools possible. First compute the difference between your school score on principal trust of teachers (PTT) and the mean for the normative sample (PTT 4.911). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100(PTT 4.911)]. Next divide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.618). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed a standardized score Standard Score for Principal Trust in Teachers. Repeat the process for each subscale as follows:
For Principal Trust in Teachers, calculate a standardized trust score using the following formula:
Standard Score for Principal Trust in Teachers (PTT) = 100(PTT 4.911)/.618 + 500
For Principal Trust in Students, calculate a standardized trust score using the following formula:
Standard Score for Principal Trust in Students (PTS) = 100(PTS 4.827)/.587 + 500
For Principal Trust in Parents, calculate a standardized trust score using the following formula:
Standard Score for Principal Trust in Parents (PTP) = 100(PTP 4.502)/.719 + 500
Reliability and Validity of the Principal Trust Scale
The norms are based on a sample of 642 principals in Virginia and Ohio. The reliability for Principal Trust in Teachers was .87 in the norming sample, .87 for Principal Trust in Students, and .86 for Principal Trust in Parents. Factor analytic studies of the Principal Trust Scale support the construct validity of this measure. For more information, see Gareis, C. R. & TschannenMoran, M. (2004, April). Principals Sense of Efficacy and Trust. Paper accepted to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
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